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ETA & SDA Moxxor

ETA: Eicosatetraenoic Acid & SDA: Stearidonic Acid 
Omega-3 fatty acids are now well-known inflammation fighters.Controlled clinical trials clearly show that they fight inflammation, reducing
and in some cases eliminating the need for anti-inflammatory drugs with
their disturbing short- and long-term side effects. Both
omega-3 fatty acids, and nearly all anti- inflammatory drugs, work
through their effects on a group of local, cellular “hormones” called
eicosanoids. 
Eicosanoids
are messengers that cells use to communicate with one another,
coordinating their activities. Some (“bad”) eicosanoids promote
inflammation, while other (“good”) eicosanoids have
potentanti-inflammatory functions. Thus, the body’s inflammatory
response rests inlarge part on the balance of “good” and “bad”
eicosanoids produced by your cells when they hear the immune system’s
inflammatory call. 
“Bad”
eicosanoids are made from an omega-6 fatty acid called arachidonic
acid. Most drug approaches to inflammation, from aspirin and the older
NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, like ibuprofen) to the
new “COX-2 inhibitor”drugs, like celecoxib [Celebrex®] and rofecoxib
[Vioxx®]), work by inhibiting the formation of the series-2 prostanoid
group of “bad” eicosanoids. Prostanoids are formed from arachidonic acid
by an enzyme called cyclooxygenase, or COX. (AA). 
But
while these drugs certainly provide symptomatic relief in the short
term, COX-2 inhibitors can actually accelerate the underlying inflammatory
disease in the long term, by diverting arachidonic acid into another,
slower-acting, and ultimately more destructive pathway: the lipoxygenase
(LOX) enzyme pathway, which produces the ravaging series-4 leukotrienes. Leukotrienes are the eicosanoids released by immune cells involved in the
body’s inflammatory responses, and are more responsible for the
long-term consequences of inflammation, which can result when a deranged
immune system attacks the very body that it was designed to defend. 
Therefore,
blocking the COX pathway alone results in an imbalance – an imbalance
that ultimately trades short-term gain for long-term pain. What people
suffering with auto-immune disorders most need is a “dual pathway
inhibitor:” a molecule which will shut down COX-2 and LOX alike,
preventing the formation of all “bad” eicosanoids. 
Transnational pharmaceutical giants are racing to create such drugs. But Nature is already waiting for them at the finish line, with two rare omega-3 fatty acids. 
Introducing ETA and SDA 
Eicosatetraenoic
acid (ETA) and its precursor stearidonic acid (SDA), are omega-3 fatty
acids you probably haven’t heard much about. Because ETA and SDA are so
rare in food sources,there’s been little study of their role in the
effects of diet on chronic disease (unlike eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),which are commonly found in fatty fish
and in regular fish-oil supplements). 
While
ETA is very rare in the normal Western diet, it is found in significant
amounts in the fatty acids of the green-lipped mussel (Perna
canaliculus). Many early studies in humans and animals found that crude
extracts of Perna were effective in reducing inflammation, and in
relieving the symptoms of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis – but other
studies found no effect. 
The
reason, as later studies confirmed, was that the anti-inflammatory
properties of the green-lipped mussel were due to their content of SDA
and ETA. Most green-lipped mussel supplements are not stable fatty acid
extracts, but are crude concentrates or are based onmucopolysaccharides.
When
seven commercially-available green mussel products were put to the test
by comparing them with a stable fatty extract rich in ETA and SDA, the
fatty acid extract revealed strong anti-inflammatory powers, while the
other extracts were found to vary wildly in strength. Great variations
were even revealed in different batches of the same product. 
More
tellingly, when the inflammation-fighting powers of a stable ETA- and
SDA-rich extract were compared with crude P. canaliculus extracts whose
fatty acid content had been deliberately removed, the fatty acid extract
of the mussel exhibited potentanti-inflammatoryeffects, while the ETA-depleted preparation was found to be completely ineffective. 
ETA and SDA Top the Omega- 3’s 
Two
direct comparison studies have been performed in animals to compare the
anti-inflammatory effects of the ETA- and SDA-rich oil of P.
canaliculus against those of salmon, cod liver, flaxseed, and two mixed
fish oils. These studies clearly show that the ETA- and SDA-rich fatty
acid extract of P. canaliculus is far superior to other omega-3 sources
at quenching the fires of inflammation, giving more
potentanti-inflammatory benefits at significantly lower doses. 
Using
the series of tests discussed above, ETA/SDA supplementation lowered
arthritis scores by 4213% to 7515%, versus 0 to 31% using conventional
omega-3 sources. Likewise,
rear pawswelling was reduced by 96-98% by the ETA/SDA-rich oil, while
swelling was only lowered by 7 to 38% with common omega-3s! These
results are all the more remarkable because the dose of ETA/SDA-rich P.
canaliculus oil was only about 1% of that used for the standard omega-3
oils. 
Another
recent study tested the effects of these novel fatty acids in a rat
model of arthritis. After 15 days of administering omega-3 fatty acid
extracts from P. canaliculus, rear pawswelling was significantly reduced
by 34% and fore paw inflammation by 60%. Deterioration
in total body condition was reduced by 52% compared to controls. The
extract also decreased inflammatory response in the spleen, and it had a
35-70% inhibition of leukotriene metabolites. Serum levels of the
inflammatory biomarker ceruloplasmin were reduced compared to control
mice, indicating a less severe disease state. Interestingly,
the fatty acids had comparable potency to the known anti-inflammatory
agent piroxicam. The fatty acid extract had no adverse side effects.
These results suggest a potential benefit not only in rheumatoid
arthritis, but also in other inflammatory diseases such aspsoriasis,
asthma and cardiovascular disease. 
A New Human Trial 
In
a new randomized,double-blind, controlled trial involving rheumatoid
and osteoarthritis sufferers, significant improvements were reported in
morning stiffness and measures of joint functionality during the
double-blinded phase among rheumatoid arthritis sufferers taking the
SDA/ETA-rich oil; further, night pain was “much improved” in 40% of
subjects, and vanished in an additional 26.7%. Improvements
were also seen in some patients’ grip strength and overall visual-scale
pain scores, but these results were not found statistically meaningful.
Assessment
by doctors and patients concluded that 73% of the persons with
rheumatoid arthritis had experienced a good response – including 20% who
became completely symptom-free by the end of the double-blind phase.The
results were similar in the osteoarthritis victims. 
Similar
results have been reported in an unpublished pilot trial and incase
reports. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial vouches for the
benefits of an SDA- and ETA-rich fatty acid supplement in bronchial
asthma, and testimonial accounts and animal studies suggest benefits in
premenstrual syndrome as well. 
HowDoes It Work? 
Why does the SDA- and ETA-rich oil of Perna canaliculus so remarkably out-perform other omega-3s ? The
anti-inflammatory powers of all omega-3 fatty acids are grounded in
biochemistry: the omega-3s’ ability to bind up key enzymes involved in
making “bad” eicosanoids. And as studies show, ETA, and SDA working
through it, more potently prevent the formation of both types of “bad”
eicosanoids: series-2 prostanoids and series-4 leukotrienes. Mechanisms are believed to include a stronger ability to tie updelta-5 desaturase, the enzyme that forms arachidonic acid, indirectly increasing the production of the “good” eicosanoids from DGLA, ETA’s close chemical resemblance to arachidonic acid, leading to stronger tying up of the LOX enzyme. 
In
addition to these advantages, SDA and ETA share anti-inflammatory
mechanisms that are common to all omega-3 fatty acids. Thus, ETA and SDA
are natural COX-2 inhibitors. Remarkably, omega-3s accomplish this feat
not only because their natural metabolites bind up COX-2, but also by
actually working at the gene level to reduce the production of COX-2
from the DNA code, and SDA/ETA block the formation of inflammatory
cytokines (immune system messenger chemicals) such as tumornecrosis
factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). Revolutionary new painkillers – such as etanercept (Enbrel®) are so effective because they target TNF-alpha. 
ETA/SDA-based
omega-3 supplements are an orthomolecular revolution, providing
powerful support against inflammation in ways that other natural
supplements can’t match. The biochemistry explains the results seen in animal studies and clinical trials.But only you can experience them … for yourself. 
References: 
Sing
M, Hodges LD, WrightPFA, Cheah DMY, Wynne PM, Kalafatis N and Macrides
TA. The CO2-SFE crude lipidextract and the free fatty acid extract from
Perna canaliculs haveanti-inflammatory effects on adjuvant-induced
arthritis in rats. ComparativeBiochemistry and Physiology. 2008;Part B
149:251-258. 
Gibson
SL, Gibson RG. Thetreatment of arthritis with a lipid extract of Perna
canaliculus: a randomizedtrial. Compl Ther Med. 1998; 6: 122-6. 
Macrides
TA, Treschow AP,Kalafatis N, Wright PF, Wynne PM. The anti-inflammatory
effects of n-3tetraenoic fatty acids isolated from a lipid extract from
the mussel, Pernacanaliculus. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.
1997 Aug; 57(2): 250(AbsW20). 
Whitehouse
MW, Macrides TA,Kalafatis N, Betts W, Haynes DR, Broadbent J.
Anti-inflammatory activity of alipid fraction (Lyprinin) from the NZ
green-lipped mussel. Inflammopharmacol.1997; 5(3): 237-46. 
Brien
S, Prescott P, CoghlanB, Bashir N, Lewith G. Systematic review of the
nutritional supplement PernaCanaliculus (green-lipped mussel) in the
treatment of osteoarthritis. QJM. 2008Mar;101(3):167-79. Epub 2008 Jan
25. Review. 
Darlington
LG, Stone TW. Antioxidants and fatty acids in theamelioration of
rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders. Br J Nutr. 2001Mar; 85(3):
251-69. 
Moxxor Contains All 18 Omega-3’s 
The names of the Omega-3’s found in MOXXOR (the last 5 are of most interest to us) are as follows: Alpha -Linolenic Acid                              (ALA)                Stearidonic Acid                                    (STA) Eicosatrienoic Acid                               (ETE)                2 forms Eicosatetraenoic Acid                             (ETA)               4 forms Eicopentaenoic Acid                              (EPA)              2 forms Docosapentaenoic Acid                        (DPA)               3 forms Docosahexaenoic Acid              (DHA)               2 forms Tetrocosapentaenoic Acid                     (TPA)                2 forms Tetracosaheexaenoic Acid                     (THA) 
THIS, is why here at NHD we promote and work hard to make Moxxor
as accessible to people and pet owners in the UK and Europe as Possible
– it can help SO many, and is in a class of it’s own way above anything
you may buy in the shops – order some Moxxor to try some for yourself and your pets – what have you got to lose ?  – apart from pain ?

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